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Gabriel Giroud's report on the French birth control situation, covers the effects of the 1920 law banning contraception, small families on the French economy, the pro-natalist government and culture in France and efforts to promote birth control…

Gabriel Giroud was a leading French birth control propagandist who wrote under the pseudonym, Georges Hardy and was associated with La Ligue de la Régénération Humaine.

Gaston Doumergue was president of France when the anti-contraception law was passed in 1920.

Eugène Humbert worked for birth control in France in the 1920s.

An organization that worked to increase the French birth rate in the 1920s.

Tire company that supported pro-natalists in France in 1920s.

Professor Henri Jean Baptiste Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu was an opponent of birth control who wrote La Question de Population.

Georges Beltrami was a professor at the School of Medicine of Marseilles who opposed the 1920 French law against birth control

Dr. Lascaux opposed laws against birth control.

Dr. Gottschalk opposed laws against birth control.

Thit Jensen's account of her struggle for birth control in Denmark delivered at Sixth International Neo-Malthusian and Birth Control Conference.

Thit (Maria Kristine Dorothea) Jensen was a Danish feminist who founded the Foreningen for Sexsuel Oplysning (The Union for Sexual Enlightenment) in 1924.

Paper delivered by Johann Ferch to the Sixth International Neo-Malthusian and Birth Control Conference in New York, about propaganda efforts in Austria, Austrian law on birth control, Malthusianism, and over-population.

Johann Ferch was an Austrian neo-Malthusian, socialist writer, and printer who organized some twenty-two Mother’s Advice Clinics in Austria, with his wife Betti Ferch.

Betti Ferch was an Austrian birth control activist who served as chair of the Bund fur Geburtenkontrolle from 1925-34.

The Bund, founded by Johann Ferch in 1923 in Vienna, used neo-Malthusian principles to justify support of birth control. changed its name to Association for Birth Control in 1925.

Edith How-Martyn was a British feminist, suffragette and birth control advocate who became director of the Birth Control International Information Centre.

An organization that served as a clearing house for research on sex and sexuality, founded by Magnus Hirschfeld in 1921. The League held congresses in Copenhagen (1928), London (1929), Vienna (1930), and Brno (1932). It dissolved in 1932 and many of…

Olga Ginsburg was a Russian-born gynecologist who helped found the Women’s International Zionist Organization and had worked at the Illinois Birth Control League in Chicago in the 1920s before moving to Palestine in September, 1933.

Max Hodann was a German socialist, sex educator and physician associated with the Institute of Sexual Science, who ran two birth control clinics in Berlin.

Margaret Sanger founded the American birth control movement and was a leader in efforts to internationalize birth control from the 1920s-1950s. She opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, worked to overturn the Comstock Act's ban…

Maximillian Thule was a Polish senator associated with the Christian Democrat Party and a physician.,

Tadeusz “Boy” Źelinski, was a controversial Polish social critic and non-practicing physician who advocated women’s rights to civil marriage, divorce, birth control and abortion. Zelinski, who helped establish the Poradnia Świadomego…

On July 23, 1920, France passed a law prohibiting the sale of birth control devices and the distribution of birth control or abortion propaganda. It was amended in 1967.

The Dutch branch of the Malthusian League was founded in 1881.

Bessie Ingham Drysdale was a British educator and Neo-Malthusian. She taught at Stockwell College before joining her husband, Charles Vickery Drysdale, working for the Malthusian League.

Hugo de Vries was a Dutch botanist and geneticist best known for suggesting the concept of genes, introducing the term “mutation,” and developing a mutual theory of evolution.

Knut Wicksell was a Swedish economist identified with the Stockholm school of thought. He proposed solutions to labor and societal issues based on Malthusian ideas about birth control, which he defended until the end of his life.

Gopalji Ahluwalia established the Indian Eugenic Society in Lehore and Simla in 1921, before moving to Delhi in 1922, where he started the Indian Birth Control Society. During that same year, he began corresponding with other birth control activists…

Anne Kennedy worked for the American Birth Control League, and organized the San Francisco Birth Control Committee in August, 1924.

Leopold Katscher was a journalist and social reformer who designed and co-founded several journals, including Weltstädtische Plauderspaziergänge. He was also involved in the international peace movement and women’s rights movement.

W. F. Willcox was an American statistician who initiated the first statistics course at Cornell University in 1892.

Hornell Hart was a Professor of Sociology at Duke University from 1938 to 1957. He wrote The Enigma of Survival (1959) as well as Toward a New Philosophical Basis for Parapsychological Phenomena. He was well known for studying apparitions and astral…

Abe Isoo was a Japanese Christian socialist, parliamentarian, and activist. He helped found the first Japanese Socialist Party.

Roberto Haberman was an American socialist lawyer and left-wing activist who lived most of his life in Mexico City and Yucatán working as the head of the Foreign Language Department of the Ministry of Education. He helped introduce important…

Helene Stoecker was a German feminist and social reformer. She was responsible for the philosophy known as the New Ethic, which promoted equality of illegitimate children, legalization of abortion, and sexual education.

A.M. Stephen was a Canadian writer, educator, and activist involved in social and labor movements. Along with his work for the Canadian Birth Control League, he served as president of the League Against War and Fascism, and organized for the Spanish…

Charles Vickery Drysdale became the editor of The Malthusian in 1907, succeeding his father. He became president of the Malthusian League in 1921.

Katti Anker Moller was an advocate for children born out of wedlock, as well as for the decriminalization of abortion. She established an office in Oslo in 1924 aimed at providing information about contraception.

The San Francisco Birth Control Committee was organized by Anne Kennedy, the Executive and Legislative Secretary of the American Birth Control League. The Committee was involved in educational work and engaged with other local organizations such as…

The Connecticut Branch of the American Birth Control League was founded in 1923 by Martha Houghton Hepburn, Mrs. George Day, and Mrs. M. Toscan Bennett, after the three heard Margaret Sanger speak at the Parson’s Theater in Hartford.

In July, 1924 the League opened a space on Michigan Avenue in Chicago, where physicians could give instruction and advice about birth control to patients. A second site was later opened on Lincoln St. to serve the same purpose.

The Pennsylvania Branch of the American Birth Control League was organized in December 1921. After the Birth Control League of Allegheny County was formed as an individual organization in Pittsburgh, the Pennsylvania Branch based in Philadelphia…

The Salt Lake Branch of the American Birth Control League was founded following a visit to Salt Lake City by Dr. James F. Cooper.

The Workers’ Birth Control Group was, unlike other groups, not formed with the intention of establishing clinics and distributing information and pamphlets on birth control, but was instead created with the goal of encouraging public action…

Herr Max Hausmeister founded the German Neo-Malthusian League, Sozial Harmonische Verein, and its publications, Die Sozial Harmonie, with Karl Lotter in 1889.

Keikichi Ishimoto,  the son of a war hero, was a mining engineer, labor reformer and a Christian humanist who visited the U.S. in 1919.  He was the husband of Shidzue Katō, the president of the Japanese Birth Control League, with whom he started…

Durham S. F. Chen was inspired by Margaret Sanger’s lecture given at the Government University of Peking during her trip to China, which he was unable to attend but read in full the day after it was given. Chen left China in August 1922.

The Alameda County Birth Control League maintained a mother’s health clinic in Oakland.

The Los Angeles Birth Control League opened and maintained a birth control clinic in L.A.
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